Dyscalculia is a type of disorder that makes it difficult to remember and understand to manipulate mathematical calculations and facts. This is often considered a specific developmental disorder. It makes you feel nervous when facing with math questions.

Math dyslexia can occur in everyone in all IQ ranges – accompanied by difficulties related to time, measurement, and spatial reasoning. Estimates of the prevalence of dyslexia range from 3 to 6% of the population. In 2004, it was reported that one-quarter of children with dyscalculia had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In 2015, it was demonstrated that up to 11% of children with math difficulties also experienced ADHD. Dyslexia is also associated with women with Turner syndrome and those with congenital spina bifida.

Mathematic dysfunctions may occur as a result of traumatic brain injury. In this case the appropriate term is acalculia to distinguish it from genetic, congenital, or development process.

**Manifestations and symptoms**

The earliest manifestation of math dyslexia is often a cognitive defect, from a glance without counting, to see how many people are in a small group. Adults can divide 3 or 4 objects. Children from the age of 5 can recognize about 6 objects, especially when looking at dice. However, children with the syndrome of solving math questions may recognize the number of objects but even if they are correctly identified it but it still takes longer to determine the number than their peers. Dyslexia usually manifests itself differently at different ages. Dyslexia tends to become more apparent as children become more mature. Symptoms may also appear early in preschool children. The common symptoms of math dyslexia are difficulty with mathematical mental arithmetic, difficulty in analyzing time, and reading the analog clock. Moreover, they have difficulty in arranging common sequence numbers and they will count fingers when they do math questions.

**Existence of Dyscalculia in children**

Although many researchers believe math dyslexia is a persistent disorder, the evidence for the existence of math dyslexia is mixed. For example, in a study by Mazzocco and Myers (2003), researchers assessed children on a variety of measures and chose their most appropriate method as their best diagnostic criteria: a cut a significant 10 percent reduction on TEMA-2. Even with their utmost criteria, they found that the diagnosis of vertical learning difficulty for children did not exist. Only 65% of students who have been diagnosed during the four years are diagnosed for at least two years. The proportion of children diagnosed for two consecutive years continues to decrease. It is unclear whether these are the result of misdiagnosed children with improved mathematical and spatial awareness as they progress as usual or subjects showing an improvement of correctly diagnosed. But it has signs of discontinuous learning.

**Other problems**

Difficulty in solving math questions related to regular difficulties with the following daily arithmetic tasks:

- Difficulty learning how to read the time on an analog clock.
- The difficulty of determining which two numbers are greater
- Inability to understand financial or budget plans, sometimes even at a fundamental level; For example, estimate the cost of items in a shopping cart or checkbook.
- Uneven results in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- Visualize numbers as symbols that are meaningless or meaningless, rather than perceiving them as characters that indicate a numeric value.
- Difficulty with addition, subtraction, division, mental arithmetic, and so on.
- Having trouble distinguishing between left and right.
- Poor spatial awareness, or understanding of shape, distance, or mass, seems to be more conjecture than reality.
- Difficult with time, direction, relive the schedule, sequence of events.
- Poor memory on mathematical concepts
- Difficult to read music notation
- Difficulty counting the beat when jumping
- It is difficult to think back in time (eg. Leaving at what time if you need to go to a certain place at ‘X’)
- It is difficult to calculate mental arithmetic about the measurement or distance of an object.
- When writing, reading and recalling numbers, confusion occurs in the following cases: addition, replacement, permutation, forgetting to round numbers, reversing numbers.
- Inability to grasp and remember mathematical concepts, rules, formulas and sequences.
- Inability to focus on work that requires intense mental focus.
- Remember the wrong name. Poor name / face recognition. It is possible to replace names starting with the same letter.

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